Iranian architecture displays a class and elegance that cannot be matched with any other style of architecture and design. It is quite distinct from that of Muslim countries. The major features of Iranian architecture are: structural ingenuity basically in vault and dome construction; a skill of decoration with freedom and intricacy incomparable to any other form of architecture.
The pre-Islamic buildings include the remarkable Elamite ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil. Baked brick was used for outer surfaces by the 12th century BC. Most of the greatest buildings were built with a religious purpose, and even in secular buildings religious influences are entirely absent. Palaces were present, and their shapes, sizes and colors varied according to the ruling dynasty.
The first great development of ancient Persian architecture took place under the Achaemenid dynasty during the Persian Empire, from about 550 to 330 BC. There are numerous remains of Achaemenian period, including two palaces, a sacred precinct, a citadel, a tower, and the tomb of Cyrus.
Royal architecture under the Achaemenid also included tombs cut in solid rock, of which the best-known examples are those at Naqshah Rostam near Persepolis. Little is known of the popular building practices of the period, but archaeologists believe that the ordinary dwelling was made of mud brick. After the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great, Greek influence, in its late, Hellenistic phase, was predominant in the arts of Persia. Examples include fragments of bronze sculpture found at Shami, and the Parthian sculptural reliefs at Behistun.
During the Islamic period “mosques” became the major buildings in Iranian architecture. Outstanding examples of early Islamic Iranian architecture include the Mosque of Baghdad built in 764, the Great Mosque at Samarra erected in 847, and the early 10th-century mosque at Nayin.
After the 17th century, Iranian artists copied European paintings and engravings, and the native traditions declined. But Iranian architecture still managed to leave a huge impact on the world.
A number of aspirants out there want to make their career in Law. For this, they need right study materials if they really want to make their career bright in this field. They refer to various books and try to gain knowledge from different resources. The books are on different topics and one of them is Housing Law. Not only students but also some professionals prefer to make use of such books to solve any query or gain some additional information. Some best professionals write such books. The content in such books is properly checked and edited.
EU Law is another topic, on which many books are made. The study material is made in such a way that even the complex topic is easy to understand. Each of the topics is elaborated in a nice way. Students who choose specialized courses in this field also prefer these educational resources. These are sure to help them during their exams too. All this will give them a best way to learn about new things and practice about the already known things.
Various topics such as criminal and Family Law are covered in a perfect way. Such a material is best to be used by students, academic faculty, as well as legal practitioners. Some topics related with employment, rights, safety in the workplace, equality, termination of employment, as well as important procedural subjects are elaborated in detail, all this is quite useful for the students. All the theories and principles are covered in a perfect way. These books contain some sections in which there are some unsolved sections, it is just for those who want to build their skills and need more type of practice about some particular topic.
It is considered as good resource for both the people who are either studying or preparing for higher studies. A number of publishing houses are present in the market that ensures that they provide the student with some extensive choice in reference materials. Some do have made their own site. Check you can easily check the site to know more about them. While purchasing any of the books, first of all you need to do a good research about its content and author and after determining the entire details you can go for the final purchase. It is goof if you place your order online because this will help you to get the book even by sitting at home.
Many low-income families require assistance with affordable housing, and programs and policies that fulfill these needs help many people realize their lifelong dream of being a homeowner. Before one applies for public housing assistance programs in Dallas, some important points should be remembered.
The American government helps in providing affordable and sustainable housing to low-income families by giving them considerably decent rental accommodation as part of public housing programs. There are an estimated number of almost a million households that have been aided by Federal funds. The HUD or the -Department of Housing and Urban Development- looks after these housing assistance programs for low-income families. There are a number of HA or Housing Agencies that manage these assistance programs. Providing affordable housing to low-income families is a stabilizing attempt made by the US government, to have balance in the social structure.
At the time of the Great Depression, many Americans were left with almost no money which was the result of widespread unemployment. This was the time when housing help was first provided to low-income families.
Criteria of eligibility: In order to make sure that the public aid is going to really needy applicants, and the grant of aid is not being abused in any way, the HA decides on the eligibility of the applicants based on a criterion. The gross annual income of an applicant has to be either 50% of AMI or Average Median Income, or 80% of AMI. Those whose income is 80% of AMI belong to the -low-income- category while those whose salary is 50% of AMI belong to -very low-income- category.
If you are looking for quality and affordable housing, you can browse the internet where you will find a number of websites of housing authorities that assist low-income families by providing them with safe and decent houses. Get all information before you invest.
About the Author:
Made up of more than 300 organizations and individuals, The North Texas Housing Coalition, Inc (NTHC) is a 501(c) (3) HUD-certified counseling agency. It works to improve and increase affordable housing in the North Texas region.
Besides the types of mountain and hills, what can you look for when selecting a property in a locality with prosperity and posterity in mind?
You should make close observation on the quality of soil that make up the land in the vicinity of the neighborhood.
In Feng Shui, the natural environment we lived in provides us with life giving energy known as qi. It is the life force that sustains all living things on earth. From the highest peak of the mountain, qi flows along the natural contours of the land and makes it way down the valleys where water is located. It is carried by the wind and gathers at the boundary of water.
When you are looking for a suitable property to make your home, you should observe whether there is any mountain or hill around the area. If there is and it is lush with vegetation, you can tap into the qi that is strong and vitalizing.
But if you would like to know what types of qi is available in the area, you can start by looking at what is below the ground. Qi flows on top and below the ground. Earth is a natural conductor of qi and naturally you can determine the types of qi it carries from observing the soil. The secret is in the color of the soil. To do this, you need to dig about 2 feet into the ground. First, pay attention to the texture of the soil. If it is soft and loamy (with a mixture of clay, sand and some decayed vegetable matter), it indicates positive qi and therefore good quality. Whereas if the soil tends to be rocky and pebbly (with mostly stones), it is not conducive for positive qi to take root. Secondly, by examining the soil’s natural color, we can determine the types of qi it contains. Based on Feng Shui concept, there are five elemental phases of qi namely, wood, fire, earth, metal and water. Each element takes on a color.
The following is a general guide as to what each color means in relation to the soil:-
Green colored soil denotes wood qi and is associated with nobility, benevolence and growth
Red or purple colored soil denotes fire qi and is associated with passion and spirituality
Yellowish colored soil denotes earth qi and is associated with wealth and stability
Pale white colored soil denotes metal qi and is associated with power and authority
Black colored soil denotes water qi and is associated with intelligence and traveling.
For more of such articles, you can visit proactive-qi.com and bazidestiny.yolasite.com which offers free reading of your birth chart based on Chinese Four Pillars of Destiny (Ba Zi).
If you want to add a new design layer to your lawn or garden you may consider adding a garden arbor. Arbors offer a fairly easy and distinct way to enhance your landscaping designs. There are a variety of designs and styles available; the most important thing is to choose one that fits the look and style of your current landscape designs.
What Is A Garden Arbor?
If you are not already familiar with this type of structure you may wonder what exactly it is. To put it simply an arbor is an archway. Traditionally they were made from real branches and leaves, but modern garden arbors are typically made from wood, metal or vinyl.
To keep with the traditional theme many of them are bordered with latticework or designed in a way where vines and flowers can be grown along them. But those who enjoy a cleaner look often prefer not to grow plants or vines along them.
More Than An Archway
While they mostly function as an archway garden arbors can have additional features, some for functionality and some simply for appearance. Some are made with a bench or a swing which allows you to sit and relax outside while soaking up the beauty of your yard. Some have planter boxes allowing you to create a lush or colorful area around them. Others have a gate and are used as an entryway into a specific area of a lawn or garden.
Where To Use Them
They are often used a as decorative type of entryway. They can be used to create an entry to a specific area of the yard, a garden or on a walkway to welcome visitors. They can also provide an attractive location for a backyard wedding.
Choosing A Design
The design you choose will vary depending on how you plan to use it and depending on the style of your existing home and yard. The shape of the arc is one specific feature that differentiates one garden arbor from another. They are either round like a typical archway, flat or pointed. The material you choose will also affect the style and feel. As mentioned they are available in wood, metal or vinyl; all of which are made to withstand the outdoor elements.
Garden arbors can provide a charming gate into a specific area of your yard or simply an attractive focal point to accentuate a flower garden or walkway. Choosing a kit will provide a relatively easy way for you to incorporate this charming addition to your yard.
Over two dozen garment manufacturers in Ahmedabad can finally weave their export plans. In all, 27 companies, mostly Ahmedabad-based, will soon be allotted land in the Ahmedabad Apparel Park, the special economic zone (SEZ) promoted by Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC). Sources familiar with the development said these 27 companies have been selected on the basis of their export performance in the last three years and other criteria. Surprisingly, applications of three major textile players – Jindal, Chiripal’s Nandan Exim and Soma Textiles – have not been considered by the development committee. Sources said Jindal’s application was turned down since the company had submitted a -wrong- balance-sheet. -With the land allotment completed and customs formalities almost done, we expect the SEZ to start production within 8-9 months,- a senior GIDC officer told TOI. Among the 27 companies to be allotted land, eight are from Mumbai and one from New Delhi.wholesale apparel manufacturers Maxwell Industries of Mumbai is so far the biggest investor in the apparel park with proposed investment of Rs 35 crore. The total garment exports from this apparel park are expected to be to the tune of Rs 4,000 crore once it is fully functional. In all, 51 companies had applied for plots in this park, which has been a roller coaster ride for the GIDC. Earlier, it was the Ambika Mills land on which it has come up that became a legal hassle and later an issue pertaining to a corporation road passing through it, which delayed the project. apparel manufacturers india Besides these reasons, this project got entangled in the recent national political fracas over acquisition of agriculture land for SEZs, despite there being no issue of farmland involved.apparel manufacturer The delay in notifying this SEZ had also prompted Chief Minister Narendra Modi to intervene and write to Union commerce minister Kamal Nath for expediting the process. There are 44 plots varying between 1,000 sq m and 3,000 sq m in size in this park. The GIDC has developed the road and other infrastructure over 20 hectares of land in this park.
When it comes to bathroom remodeling, many homeowners are often at a loss when they try to complete the renovation theyve started. When youre planning a bathroom remodeling project, the best thing you can do is to hire a professional contractor. But not just any contractor; you need to be sure youre hiring the best person for the job. Someone you can rely on to do quality work on time and within your budget.What should I look for in a bathroom remodeling contractor? You should look for a professional contractor who is honest, trustworthy and can be relied on to give you the best results. Below are the 5 qualities you should look for when hiring a professional bathroom remodeling contractor:
Your professional contractor must be licensed, bonded and insured, and is responsible for pulling the required building permits.
Your professional bathroom remodeler must have extensive experience, with a good track record and references from past clients.
Your bathroom remodeling contractor must by highly skilled and factory-trained.
Your professional contractor should be certified by leading home remodeling manufacturers on the installation of their products, and must be accredited by consumer protection groups like Better Business Bureau and Angies List, among others.
The company you choose to work with must have excellent customer service, professional courtesy, and be able to respond to your questions and concerns personally without passing your issues on to 3rd-party contractors.
Trust the contractor who can meet your expectationsFinding a professional contractor you can trust is not as difficult as you think. Professional bathroom remodeling contractors like Wingler & Sons Construction provide services to homeowners and residential clients in Columbus, Ohio. While its true that the reliable ones are the busiest, trusting in the best means getting the services and quality results to meet your expectations.
While everyone has certainly fantasised at some point about living in a Surrey mansion, the reality is that the majority of people have limited living space to make use of. Small living rooms are common in many types of studio and other apartments. For the millions of 20-something college students and 30-something couples that have found small housing in big cities, every square-inch of space needs to be maximized.
Although the knee-jerk reaction is to be turned off or inconvenienced by a small space, it isn’t so much about the size of the living room, but rather how it is utilised. Foolish design and placement of furniture can make a large room clunky and uncomfortable in the same way that innovative design and creative placement of furniture can make a small room very efficient and comfortable.
Luckily, furniture makers and home decor stores have had a few decades to adapt their products to fit smaller living spaces. Gone are the days of grandiose bureaus and large dressers that take up more room than a car parked in a garage. Much of today’s furniture is built with a minimalist approach of space saving and multi-usage.
Always use light and soft colors when putting together a small living room. By using a series of creams, beige or a variety of subtle greens and violets, an aura of peace and tranquility can be established, making the space feel welcoming and safe.
The size of the furniture that you place inside of a small living room should obviously be minimized, but the shape of the pieces is important to preserving space as well. Look for a couch, table and chairs that are all compact and square-shaped. Avoid pieces with large armrests that protrude outward from the base of the piece. It is important to maintain a decent portion of visible floor space in order to avoid the feeling of being cramped.
When purchasing desks, shelves and items that can double as storage areas, look to go vertical instead of horizontal. Stacking small pieces on top of one another will bring the focus of the room toward the wall while creating substantial storage areas that have a minimal impact on the overall square-footage.
Fold-out or stowaway furniture is also a friend of a small living room. Many designers have hired engineers and artists in recent years in an attempt to create cutting-edge styling that serves a double or triple purpose. Soft, block-shaped stools can be tucked away underneath a coffee table when not in use and a bevy of other modern innovations are multi-functional.
By using the benefits of modern design with living room furniture and a little creativity and resourcefulness, small living rooms can be big successes.
All of us have known the beauty that can be created by the use of paper lanterns. However, very few of us have any idea about the numerous usage and effects of using paper lanterns. Chinese have been using paper lanterns from thousands of years and according to them it plays a significant role in feng shui.
Paper lanterns help in increasing fertility:
Millions of women throughout the world face difficulty in getting pregnant. This can be a devastating experience if the wait is really long. Many people do not believe solely on doctors to help them fight the problem with their fertility. Feng shui is believed to help in improving fertility by using red paper lanterns. According to the theory of feng shui, red paper lanterns if hanged on both side of bed can help in getting pregnancy. Many feng shui experts even suggest using a red paper lantern directly over the bed.
Paper lanterns help in bringing positive energy in house
Feng shui is well known as an art that brings positive energy in peoples life. Paper lanterns are believed to play a significant role in bringing a positive energy and harmonica effect in your bedroom and house. Keeping paper lanterns on both or either side of bed is helpful in bringing positive Yang energy into the bedroom and improves the already present chi energy. Bright colored paper lanterns are more effective for harnessing Yang energy.
Paper lanterns help in bringing harmony to marriage
Feng shui uses the energy of polarity and according to it using a pair of same object is very effective. Using a pair of red paper lanterns on sides of bed, both lit simultaneously signify a long and happy marriage. However, for the effect to be more it is important to lit and switch off both the lanterns at the same time so that they work in harmony. This harmony is symbol of marriage and signifies the harmony between husband and wife.
Paper lanterns are very important part of feng shui process. Those who believe in feng shui will definitely know that paper lanterns are not just decorative but a source of positive energy.
With spring in the air, we are all itching to get outdoors. Sadly, though, the night comes too quickly, before we’ve even had a chance to enjoy our outdoor living area. Many of us put in a lot of effort into the landscape, gardens and patios surrounding our homes, and we deserve to take full advantage of these areas. Home outdoor lighting is possibly the best way to extend your outdoor experience into the wee hours of the night. Here are five fantastic ways to use garden lighting to your advantage.
Up High: Outdoor structures, enclosures and gazebos all need home outdoor lighting to make them work once it gets dark. Fortunately, outdoor ceiling fixtures abound in styles you are going to love. These span the spectrum from elegant and classic gothic pieces to modern and tastefully trendy. Use post lanterns to illuminate and decorate a large area all at once. Oh, and let’s not forget the slice of heaven called outdoor ceiling fans. Words cannot describe the blissful calm that falls over you as a soft breeze surrounds you on a warm summer day or night.
Down Low: Landscape lighting or specialty lighting can alleviate annoyances as well as illuminate nature’s beauty. Use path lighting, deck lighting and in-stairs lighting to light up a walking path, staircase or corridor so that coming home in the dark doesn’t end in disaster. You can also use decorative garden lighting such as in-ground, underwater and fountain lights to make a beautiful setup really come alive. Novelty fixtures shaped like gravel, stone, rustic shading and more can blend into the surrounding nature for an even more magical effect.
To the Side: Use your walls to your lighting advantage with wall sconces. Homeowners love this option for several reasons. To start with, wall sconces are up on the wall, so they illuminate a larger area than fixtures that are lower down to the ground. Because they’re mounted to the wall, however, sconces won’t take up room or get in the way. What’s more, this garden lighting option comes with hundreds of styles and designs so you can really express your individuality and your taste with these fixtures.
Nice and Slow: Finally, torches can be used on a number of occasions. Outdoor parties will be an instant success with these mood-setting luminaries scattered around your porch or pool area. Use both lighting oil and candles to keep the party going longer. Alternatively, candlelit torches make for a most romantic evening for two. So the next time you want some special time with the one you love, set up for some solace under the stars.
These are just a few of the ways that garden lighting can enhance your outdoor living area. After a long and cold winter, we all want to break free and move around. With the warmer months finally here, don’t limit yourself to four walls. Get outside and make the most of your home, inside and out.